The first official news on the territory dates back to 977, when the bishop of Paestum Pandone sold some land holdings which belonged to the churches of Santa Maria de Gulia, Santa Maria Litus Maris and San Giovanni di Tresino to sailors of Atrani . In these lands there was also the presence of the Basilian refugee monks from the east, the chapel of Santa Sofia is a testimony. The Lombards and Normans are among the populations that have left a strong tangible sign of their presence in the area. The Lombards initially looted these lands, but after their conversion to Christianity by the Benedictines they became their benefactors through the feudal imposition
The history of this area is inextricably linked to the figure of San Costabile Gentilcore, fourth abbot of the Badia di Cava. In the year in which he was elevated to the dignity of abbot, he started construction work on the castle of Sant'Angelo (10 October 1123). The abbey of Costabile was short: these in fact died on February 17, 1124. His successor, the abbot Simeone, completed the construction of the manor and did his utmost in favor of the local population. In 1124 he bought the port "Travierso" from the count of Acerno and enlarged it, thus developing trade. In 1138 he granted to the subjects of the feudal power of the abbey a diploma of different privileges: he reduced the burdens in half, gave them the houses they lived in and the lands asking in return for their reclamation and cultivation. From 1194 to 1266 the fiefdom was under the Swabian dominion, to then pass under the Angevin dominion. The castle proved to be a valid garrison and Castellabate, thanks also to the benefits derived from its natural position, over time became the most important barony of Cilento. On August 8, 1806 Castellabate, after the abolition of feudalism, with the districts of Santa Maria, San Marco, Ogliastro Marina and Lago, was elevated to the capital of the municipality and the district "Castel dell'abate", which falls within the district of Bonati. (province of Principality Citra) of the Kingdom of Naples 27, during the Kingdom of Italy it was the capital of the homonymous mandate (which also included Orthodox, Perdifumo and Serramezzana) belonging to the district of Vallo della Lucania]. She was involved in the extensive phenomenon of emigration at the end of the 19th century, of which Francesco Matarazzo became the most significant example. Matarazzo, who left his native country initially also in search of fortune, with his factories contributed significantly to the industrial development of Brazil, a privileged destination for the emigrants of Castellabate .
The country passes practically unharmed the phase of the First World War. In September 1943, during the Second World War, the territory, like much of the Salerno coast, was the scene of the so-called landing in Salerno: the allied troops occupied the Castellabate marina for several days before advancing towards Rome. The territory of Castellabate extends for about 19 km along the Tyrrhenian Sea with its hamlets of S. Maria where the municipal house is located, San Marco and Ogliastro Marina with various districts, Starza, Alano, Lago, Annunziata, Cenito.
San Marco today enjoys a well-equipped tourist and fishing port behind which there are the remains of a Greek-Roman landing place with two piers of the 1st century BC. they emerge from the waters of San Marco, near the modern port structure. This structure, built in opus caementicium on a rocky bottom by wooden formwork, is identified as the port of Erculia or Ercolam, the main supply port for boats bound for the port of Miseno as well as a military base or support site for the imperial fleet. To corroborate this hypothesis is the finding in the waters in front of the port of San Marco in the sixties of some lead anchors (dating between the first and second centuries) marked by the word ter. This wording indicates the type of boat to which the anchors were intended: the triremes .
Necropolis: San Marco is home to a necropolis located near the promenade that leads from the modern port to the Pozzillo. The necropolis reaches 7000 square meters and its 151 tombs are found almost exclusively within private soils.
Santa Maria in the marine protected area of Castellabate is the most important and most populated center of the municipality, where there are numerous commercial activities intended for hospitality and tourist reception, it enjoys a varied, jagged coast, where rocks alternate, high cliffs, bays, natural coves and golden beaches. The main municipal sandy beaches are: "del Pozzillo", "Marina Piccola", "Punta dell'Inferno" or "dello Scario", "della Grotta", "della Baia Arena", "della punta di Ogliastro", and "del Lago" also called "ù Sciome". There are numerous natural coves in the municipality, especially in the area of Ogliastro Marina, Licosa and Tresino. The most famous are "Cala della bella" and "Saùco". The coast of Castellabate has an emerged natural cave (where some Paleolithic finds have been found) near the sandy beach of the same name in San Marco, several sea caves (such as those at Punta Pagliarolo) and interesting seabed, destinations for diving excursions. The territory includes several walks along the sea (such as those of the "delle Tartarughe", "Tommaso Perrotti", "Raffaello De Simone", "Barone Nicola Pepi" and "Bracale" promenades. The territory, the heart of the Cilento national park, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, has several green areas and natural paths, also equipped as botanical paths.The most important green areas are the Castelsandra wood, the park of Villa Matarazzo, the pine forests of Ogliastro Marina, Licosa and Tresino, while the main paths are those between "Ogliastro Marina and the Pozzillo" (8.6 km), "San Marco and Licosa" (4.4 km), "Santa Maria and Castellabate historical center" (0.6 km), and "Lago, Tresino, Saint Peter".
Ogliastro Marina, another small town, but of great naturalistic interestLicosa Island (160 meters long and 40 meters wide) in the hamlet of Ogliastro Marina, another small town, but of great naturalistic interest that has always been an important point reference for navigation, it represents the most characteristic natural site of the municipal area with its dangerous shoals and clear waters, witnesses of numerous sinkings. The submerged remains of the homonymous Greek-Roman city are visible in its waters, especially those of a Roman villa and a tank for raising moray eels (dating back to a period from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD). On the island, where the lighthouse and the ruin of the lighthouse keeper's house stand, several finds from the Greco-Roman era have been found such as a slab with an epigraph dedicated to Ceres, a Roman mosaic and numerous Greek ceramics from the 5th century BC, preserved in the National Archaeological Museum of Paestum. The area is pervaded by the myth of the sirens. It is believed that the name of Licosa derives from the siren Leucosia, who, according to authors such as Licofrone, Strabo and Pliny the Elder, lived here and was buried here after she threw herself into the sea. Homer, in the Odyssey, also mentions the island of the sirens with a bewitching song, mocked by Ulysses and his crew . But since the island of Licosa was once connected to the promontory, before the sinking of the coast in the 4th century BC, it is believed that the island of the sirens may be the nearby "Secca di Vatolla" (from where it is possible to observe Vatolla), about six meters deep. Aristotle tells of the presence on the islet of a temple dedicated to Leucotea, identified with Leucosia. Other authors, such as Dionigi di Alicarnasso and Sesto Pompeo Festo, claim that the name Licosa is due to a cousin or nephew of Aeneas buried on the islet (Leucosia insula dicta est a consobrina Aeneae ibi sepulta).
Licosa with its island is a fraction of the City of Castellabate that houses a very low number of inhabitants, is a place that preserves all the natural beauty of the past. It also takes its name from the now famous "Isle of Licosa".
The area of Licosa is accessible only on foot and has 2 entrances, the southern one of Ogliatro Marina and the northern one of S.Marco.
The island is located in the marine protected area or in the "Marine Park of Castellabate" already for more than 10 years awarded the Blue Flag for the clarity of its waters.
The name derives from the Greek "Leukosia" which means white, and legend has it that it was the Leukosia Siren, narrated in Homer's Odyssey, to live on this island, which turned into a rock following the love not Corresponded by Ulysses who, attracted by the siren's song, broke his ship right on these shores.
On the island were also found many artifacts dating back to Roman times as a slab with an epigraph dedicated to Ceres, a mosaic of the Roman era and many ceramics of the fifth century BC.
In its surrounding waters are visible submerged remains of the homonymous Greco-Roman city, especially those of a Roman villa and a tank for the breeding of moray eels.
Above the island there is the huge lighthouse and the rest of the ruins of the lighthouse keeper's lodgings.
Also the Zona Lago is essentially characterized by its wonderful "perlata" beach, several kilometers long. From here it is also possible to undertake on foot the stupendous nature trail that starts from Punta Tresino and goes up to Agropoli.